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Black pepper is native to the Western Ghats of Kerala State, India, where it still occurs wild in the mountains. This area is thought to be the centre of origin for the crop because the diversity of cultivated forms are greatest here. It has spread from India to Southeast Asia through pepper vine cuttings brought by people migrating from India to Indonesia and other countries.

Pepper has been one of the most ancient commodities of the spice trade. Together with ginger, it has the longest history of export from South Asia dating back at least 4000 years. Most ports and trading stations for black pepper were located in Southwest India where wild populations of the plants grew. Apart from India, black pepper is widely cultivated throughout Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Tropical Africa, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and China.

The popular names designated to the crop, such as " King of Spices " and " Black Gold " reveals the importance of the crop-attained world over. Being a native of Western Ghats, pepper forms an important ingredient of several indigenous medicines of India. The name pepper comes from the Sanskrit word “pippali” meaning berry.


Black pepper, Piper nigrum L. belonging to the family Piperaceae, is a perennial, climbing vine indigenous to the Malabar Coast of India. It is a branching vine with a smooth, woody, articulate stem swollen at the joints. As a woody climber, it may reach heights of 10 m by means of its aerial roots. Its broad, shiny green, pointed, petiolate leaves are alternately arranged. The sessile, white, small flowers are borne in pendulous, dense, slender spikes of about 50 blossoms each. The berry-like fruits, or peppercorns are round, about 0.5 - 1.0 cm in diameter and contain a single seed. They become yellowish red at maturity and bear a single seed. The odour is penetrating and aromatic; the taste is hot, biting and very pungent.

Black pepper is used universally in sauces, gravies, processed meats, poultry, snack foods etc. Both black and white pepper are used in cuisine worldwide, at all stages of the cooking process and as a table condiment.  White pepper has a distinguishably different flavour but is utilized to a lesser extent.  It is used in processed meats and in applications where dark specking is not desired.  Black pepper is added to fruitcakes and gingerbread and is also used as a light seasoning on fresh fruit.  Black pepper oleoresin is used for similar purposes.

Soil and climate

Pepper requires a warm and humid climate. Though an annual rainfall of 250 cm is ideal for the proper growth of the crop, it can also come up well in low rainfall areas, if the pattern and distribution of rainfall are conducive. About 70 mm of rainfall within a period of 20 days may be sufficient for triggering of flushing and flowering process in the plant, but once the process is set on, there should be continuous, though not heavy, rainfall until fruit development starts. Any dry spell, even for a few days, within this critical period will result in substantial reduction of yield. Very long spells of dry weather are unfavorable for the crop growth.

The plant tolerates a minimum temperature of 10 ºC and maximum of 40 ºC, the optimum being 20-30 ºC. It can be grown from sea level up to an altitude of 1200 m, but lower altitude is preferable.

Pepper prefers a light porous and well-drained soil rich in organic matter. Water stagnation in the soil, even for a very short period, is injurious for the plant. So, heavy textured soils in locations where drainage facilities are inadequate should be avoided.



A majority of the cultivated types are monoecious (male and female flowers found in the same spike) though variation in sex expression ranging from complete male to complete female is found. Over 75 cultivars of black pepper are being cultivated in India. Karimunda is the most popular of all cultivars in Kerala.

The other important cultivars are Kottanadan (South Kerala), Narayakodi (Central Kerala), Aimpiriyan (Wayanad), Neelamundi (Idukki), Kuthiravally (Kozhikode and Idukki), Balankotta and Kalluvally (North Kerala). Panniyur-1, Panniyur-2, Panniyur-3, Panniyur-4, Panniyur-5, Panniyur-6, Panniyur-7, Subhakara, Sreekara, Karimunda, Panchami, Pournami, Kottanadan, Kuthiravally, Arakulam Munda, Balankotta and Kalluvally are the commonly cultivated varieties. Of these, Panniyur-1 is to be grown in comparatively open areas,improved varieties are Panniyur 8, Girimunda, and Malabar Excel.

Improved varieties of black pepper and their characteristic features




Released from

Av.yield kg/ha (dry)

Oleoresin (%)

Piperine (%)

E.Oil (%)


Panniyur -1

F1 of Uthirankotta X Cheriyakaniyakadan

Pepper Research Station, Kerala Agriculture University, Panniyur





Suited to all pepper growing regions. However, do not tolerate heavy shade.

Panniyur -2

Open pollinated progeny of 'Balankotta'






Suited to all pepper growing tracts of Kerala. Appreciably tolerant to shade.

Panniyur -3

F1 of Uthirankotta x Cheriyakaniyakadan






Suited to all pepper growing regions of Kerala. Late maturing.

Panniyur -4

Clonal selection of Kuthiravally






Suited to all pepper growing tracts of Kerala. Performs well under adverse climatic conditions.

Panniyur -5

Open pollinated progeny of Perumkodi






Suited to all pepper growing tracts. Tolerant to nursery diseases.


Clonal selection of Karimunda

IISR, Calicut





Suited to all pepper growing tracts of Kerala and South Karnataka










Clonal selection of Aimpirian








Clonal selection of Ottaplackal






Suited to all pepper growing tracts of Kerala and S.Karnataka. Tolerant to root knot nematode infection.


Clonal selection of Kottanadan

Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Regional Station, Palode





Recommended for release in Quilon and Trivandrum districts of Keral

Panniyur-6, Panniyur-7.IISR Sakthi and IISR Thevam are tolerant to Phytophthora foot rot.


Season (planting time)

With the onset of south west monsoon in June - July, plant 2 rooted cuttings in the pit.

Planting materials

Production of quality planting materials

Black pepper vines develop three types of aerial shoots, namely:

  1. Primary stem with long internodes and with adventitious roots, which cling to the standards

  2. Runner shoots which originate from the base of the vine and have long inter nodes which strike roots at each node

  3. Fruit bearing lateral branches.

Pepper is propagated vegetatively from cuttings. Select runner shoots produced at the base of mother plants and keep them coiled and raised to prevent from striking roots in the soil. Separate them from the vines in February-March. The middle one-third portion of runner shoot is preferred for planting. Very tender and too hard portions of the shoots are to be avoided.

The shoots are cut into pieces with 2-3 nodes in each. Leaves, if any, are to be clipped off leaving a small portion of the petioles on the stem. Dipping the lower cut end (up to 2 cm) of the cuttings in 1000 ppm solution of 3-indole butyric acid (IBA) for 45 seconds will increase root formation and development. The solution can be prepared by dissolving 1 g of IBA in one litre of water containing 3-5 g of sodium carbonate (washing soda). The dipping period of 45 seconds should be strictly adhered to, as any deviation from this may be injurious. Treating the cuttings with Seradix B2 is equally effective. But IBA treatment is cheaper and hence is recommended for large nurseries where technical supervision is available. Farmers and small-scale nurseries can conveniently use Seradix B2.

Plant the treated cuttings in nursery beds or preferably in polythene bags or baskets filled with potting mixture. The potting mixture is prepared by mixing two parts of fertile topsoil, one part of river sand and one part of well rotten cattle manure.Substituting granite powder (a waste material from stone quarries) for sand in conventional potting mixture (2:1:1) is good for growth of pepper cuttings and is economical. Recommended for black pepper nurseries for large scale multiplication. Solarized potting mixture supplemented with nutrient solution (urea, superphosphate, MOP and magnesium sulphate in 4:3:2:1 ratio) and fortified with biocontrol consortia promotes growth and helps in production of disease free rooted cuttings. When polythene bags are used, sufficient number of holes (16-20) may be provided at the base to ensure good drainage. The cuttings should be planted at least one node deep in the soil. The cutting after planting should be kept under good shade. In large nurseries, pandals are to be constructed for this purpose. The cuttings are to be well protected from direct sunlight and frequent watering is recommended in the nursery to maintain a humid and cool atmosphere around the cuttings. Watering 2-3 times a day is sufficient. Heavy watering, which makes the soil slushy and causes water logging is to be avoided.

Serpentine method of propagation

Three node cuttings planted in polythene bags are kept in a corner of the nursery. When the plant develops two leaves they are trailed horizontally in polythene bags containing potting mixture kept below each tender node. Each node will be pressed into the mixture with polythene bags with ‘V’ shaped midribs of coconut leaves. As new shoots arise these will be trailed horizontally in polythene bags containing potting mixture. Upward growth of cutting is not arrested. Once twenty nodes get rooted first 10 bags in the rooted nodes will be separated by cutting at the inter nodes. The inter nodal stub will be pushed back into the potting mixture. These stubs also produce a second root system. Daily irrigation is to be given using a rose can. After three months it will be ready for planting in the main field. On an average 60 cuttings will be obtained in a year by this method from each mother cutting. Recommended in black pepper nurseries for large scale multiplication.

  • Selection criteria for planting materials

Cultivate only varieties, which are proven to be highly productive. Select mother plants, which give regularly high yields and possess other desirable attributes such as vigorous growth, maximum number of spikes per unit area, long spikes, close setting of berries, disease tolerance etc. Selected mother plants should be in the age group of 5-12 years. Mark and label selected mother plants in October-November.

Availability of planting materials

  1. Spices Board's nurseries located in Kerala (

  2. IISR (ICAR) at Marikunnu, Calicut, Kerala, India. (

  3. Pepper Research Station at Panniyur, Kannur District, Kerala, India

  4. State Department of Agriculture, Kerala through its central nurseries produce pepper cuttings, which are supplied through Krishi Bhavans. District Agriculture Offices in Kerala will give information on supply of cuttings. (

Methods of planting

Selection of site

Sites with slight to moderate slope are ideal for pepper cultivation, as they promote drainage. Slopes facing south are to be avoided as far as possible. When such slopes are to be used for cultivation, the young plants may be sufficiently protected from the scorching sun during summer.

Planting of standards

Planting of standards is to be taken up in April-May with the onset of pre-monsoon showers. Murukku (Erythrina indica) karayam or killingil (Garuga pinnata), Ailanthus sp., subabul (Leucaenea leucocephala) etc. are suitable standards for growing pepper. In high altitude areas, dadap (E. lithosperma) and silver oak (Grevillea robusta) can be successfully used as standards for pepper. Seedlings of subabul and silver oak are to be planted 2-3 years before planting pepper. The cuttings of standards are to be planted in narrow holes of 40 to 50 cm depth. The spacing recommended is 3 x 3 m on plain lands and 2 m between plants in rows across the slope and 4 m between rows on sloppy lands. The soil should be well pressed around the standards to avoid air pockets and keep the standards firm in the soil.

Planting of pepper

For planting pepper, prepare pits on the northern side of standards, 15 cm away from it. The pit size should be 50 x 50 x 50 cm. Fill the pits with a mixture of topsoil and compost or well rotten cattle manure @ 5 kg/pit and 50 g Trichoderma. With the onset of southwest monsoon in June-July, plant 2-3 rooted cuttings in the pits at a distance of about 30 cm away from the standards. Press the soil around the cuttings to form a small mound slopping outward and away from the cuttings, to prevent water stagnation around the plants. The growing portions of the cuttings are to be trailed and tied to the standards. Provide shade to the plants if the land is exposed and if there is a break in the rainfall.

When pepper is grown on coconut or arecanut trees, the pepper cuttings are to be planted 1.0 - 1.5 m away from the trunk of the trees. Trail the pepper vines on a temporary stake for 1-2 years. When they attain sufficient length to reach the tree trunk, remove the stake without causing damage to the vines and tie the pepper plants on to the tree trunk and trail them on it.


Irrigating pepper plants of Panniyur-1 variety at IW/CPE ratio of 0.25 from November / December till the end of March and withholding irrigation thereafter till monsoon break, increases pepper yield by about 50%. The depth of irrigation recommended is 10 mm (100 litres of water per irrigation at an interval of about 8-10 days under Panniyur conditions). The water is to be applied in basins taken around the plants at a radius of 75 cm. The basins may be mulched with dry leaves or other suitable materials.The irrigation schedule for AEUs of Wayanad district is given below:


Agro Ecological Units of Waynad District

AEU-15 Northern high hills (sandy clay loam)

AEU-20 Waynad Central plateau (clay loam to clay)

AEU-21 Waynad Eastern plateau (sandy to sandy loam)

Quantity of water/irrigation/ vine in liters in a basin of 0.75m radius




Irrigation interval in days





  • Manuring for pepper vines is to be done in basins taken around the plant, 10-15 cm deep and 30-40 cm radius, depending upon the growth of the plants. Apply cattle manure / compost / green leaves at the rate of 10 kg / plant / annum, just at the onset of southwest monsoon and cover lightly with soil. It is desirable to apply lime at the rate of 500 g/vine in April-May, with the receipt of pre-monsoon showers, in alternate years.

  • Recommended nutrient dosage for pepper (3 years and above)

  • N: P2O5: K2O g/vine/year

  • 109: 278: 250 (general recommendation)
    109: 278: 333 (for Panniyur and similar areas)
    304: 306: 458 (for Kozhikode and similar areas)

  • Note: Apply 1/3 dose for one-year-old plants and 1/2 dose for two-year-old plants.

    The fertilizers may be applied in two split doses, the first in May-June with the receipt of a few soaking rains and the second in August-September. Apply fertilizers in a circle of radius 30 cm around the vine in the case of plants trailed on erythrina (murukku) or teak pole (dead standard) soil application of Zinc @ 6 kg/ha as zinc sulphate or foliar spray of Zn @ 0.5 per cent during flowering and pin head stage of black pepper is recommended in Zinc deficient areas of black pepper cultivation for increasing the yield and quality. Application of Molybdenum @ 1 kg/ha is recommended for areas deficient in soil molybdenum availability.

    Apply 10 kg FYM + 500g neem cake + 500 g ash+ 2 kg vermicompost with 
    biofertilizer- Azospirillum and P- solubilizing bacteria (20g)
    Apply PGPR Consortia (50g) consisting of 2 spp. of 
    Micrococcus and 1 spp. of Enterobacter per vine which helps in growth promotion and disease suppression.

Intercultivation operation

Management after planting

If the terrain of the land is sloppy or uneven, carry out contour bunding or terracing to prevent soil erosion. Carry out digging around the standards and vines at a radius of about 1 m from the base or in the entire plantation, twice during the year, the first at the onset of southwest monsoon and the second towards the end of northeast monsoon.

Weeding around the plants is to be done according to the necessity. However, in foot rot affected gardens, digging should be avoided and weeds removed by slashing. In the early stages, tie the vines to the standards, if found necessary.

Where pepper is grown on a plantation scale, growing of cover crops like Calapagonium muconoides is recommended. When such cover crops are grown, they are to be cut back regularly from the base of the plants to prevent them from twining along with the pepper vines. Lowering of vines after one year's growth will promote lateral branch production.

Intercropping of pepper gardens with ginger, turmeric, colocasia and elephant foot yam is advantageous. Banana as an intercrop in yielding gardens reduces pepper yield. Therefore, this is not recommended beyond three to four years after planting of pepper vines. However, in the early years, banana provides shade to the young plants and protects them from drying up during summer months.

When pepper is grown in open places, shading and watering of the young seedlings may be done during summer months for the first 1 to 3 years according to necessity. The young plants may be completely covered with dry arecanut leaves, coconut leaves or twigs of trees until summer months are over. Mulching the basins of pepper vines during summer months is highly advantageous. Saw dust, arecanut husk and dry leaves are suitable mulching materials. Removal of unwanted terminal shoot growths and hanging shoots should be done as and when necessary.

Prune and train the standards in March-April every year to remove excessive overgrowth and to give them a proper shape. The effective height of the standard is to be limited to about 6 m. A second pruning of the standards may be done in July-August, if there is excessive shade in the garden.


After regular bearing for about 20 years, the vines of most varieties start declining in yield. The age of decline in yield varies with variety, agroclimatic conditions and management factors. So underplanting should be attempted at about 20 years after planting or when a regular declining trend in the yield appears. The old and senile vines can be removed 3-5 years after underplanting depending upon the growth of the young vines.

Intercrop in coconut gardens

Pepper is an ideal intercrop for raising in the coconut garden to get additional returns. Coconut tree itself can be used as a standard for raising pepper and also on live standards such as gliricidia, murikku, silveroak, subabul, etc.

Planting of pepper cuttings in coconut gardens

The pits are filled with a mixture of 10 kg farm yard manure or compost and top soil. The rooted cuttings of pepper plants (the height of the vine may be restricted to 4 meter by pruning) are to be planted in pits of 50 x 50 x 50 cm size, taken at a distance of 1 to 1.5 m away from the trunk, at the north eastern side of the palm in order to protect the young vines from sun scorching and allowed to trail along the ground and, then on the palms by tying to the trunk.

The pepper vines can also be trailed on a temporary stake for some time and when they attain sufficient length to reach the tree trunk, remove the stake without causing damage to the vines. Make a furrow, from the base of the pepper plant to the bole of the coconut palm. Then remove the leaves from the vine, except a few at the growing portion, and place the vine in the furrow in a such a way that the growing portion is above the soil at the basal portion of the coconut palm, so that it can easily trail on the palm. The rest of the vine in the furrow is then covered with soil. A small bund, 5 cm wide, should be made in the basin to demarcate the region under which the pepper vine is placed, so as to avoid injury to the vine while carrying out cultural operations.

In order to avoid mutual competition for nutrients separate manuring should be done for each crop. The manures and fertilizers for the pepper vines can be applied in channels taken on either side of the bund made in the basins. The fertilizer maybe applied in two split doses first in May-June with the receipt of summer rains and second in August - September. Organic manures like cattle manure, compost, wood ash, coir pith compost, etc. should be added as per the availability in addition to fertilizer application.


In Kerala, black pepper flowers during May- June. The crop is ready for harvest in 6-8 months from flowering. The harvest season extends from November to January in the plains and January to March in the hills.

During harvest, the whole spike is hand picked when one or two berries in the spike turn bright orange. The berries are separated from the spikes and dried in the sun for 7- 10 days. The optimum moisture content in dried black pepper to prevent mould attack is 8- 10%.

Value added product

Black pepper

Black pepper of commerce is produced from whole, unripe but fully developed berries. The harvested berries are piled up in a heap to initiate browning. Then they are spread on the suitable drying floor after detaching the berries from the stalk by threshing. During sun drying, berries are raked to ensure uniform colour and to avoid mould development. Drying the berries for 3-5 days reduces the moisture content to 10-12 percent. The dried berries are garbled, graded and packed in double lined gunny bags. Blanching the berries in boiling water for one minute prior to sun drying accelerates the browning process as well as the rate of drying. It also gives a uniform lustrous black colour to the finished product and prevents mouldiness of berries. But prolonged blanching should be avoided since it can deactivate the enzymes responsible for browning process.

White pepper

White pepper is prepared from ripe berries or by decorticating black pepper. Bright red berries, after harvest are detached from the stalk and packed in gunny bags. The bags are allowed to soak in slow running water for about one week during which bacterial rotting occurs and pericarp gets loosened. Then the berries are trampled under feet to remove any adhering pericarp, washed in water and then sun dried to reduce the moisture content to 10-12 per cent and to achieve a cream or white colour. White pepper is garbled, sorted and packed in gunny bags. Approximately 25 kg white pepper is obtained from 100 kg ripe berries.

Improved Central Food Technology Research Institute (CFTRI) method

Fully mature but unripe berries are harvested and boiled in water for 10-15 minutes to soften the pericarp. After cooling, the skin is rubbed off either mechanically or manually, washed and sun dried to obtain white pepper. Since no retting operation is involved, the product will be free from any unpleasant odour. However, white pepper produced by this method gives pepper powder of light brown colour due to gelatinisation of starch in contrast to pure white powder obtained by traditional method.

Value added products

Dehydrated green pepper

Dehydrated green pepper is a premium quality pepper, processed out of farm fresh green pepper berries into dried form, by air drying, retaining its green colour and giving out the best flavour. This is par excellent in quality, flavour, colour etc than black pepper. This value added spice product is based on technology developed by the CFTRI India.


The processing involves collection of farm fresh berries right from the pepper vines and directly feeding them to the processing plant within 24 hours, before any microbial action sets in. The product, dehydrated green pepper is a substitute for canned green pepper. Dehydrated green pepper is easy to store and transport, when soaked in lukewarm water will regain its fresh green colour and shape. Because of its pleasing flavour and aroma there is a distinct preference among conscious consumers for green pepper to black pepper. The processing of dehydrated green pepper is carried on a seasonal basis, depending on the harvesting period of raw green pepper crop. Usually the season for raw green pepper cropping starts from October, November and ends by March, April. Dry recovery comes to 20%.


The pungent taste and flavour of dehydrated green pepper is universally liked, in meat and sausage industries. The packers sell it in small packets as well as in powder form. Beef and pork steaks become more delicious with a sprinkling of green ground pepper. Dehydrated green pepper gives attractive colour, flavour and aroma to all kind of soups.

Green pepper in brine

Major applications of green pepper in brine are in making sauces, meat processing industries, steak preparations and in the food service sector. The uniform tender berries that pass the quality control measures are washed and cleaned and put in to a brine solution. The cleaned berries are stored in 17% ± 2% salt solution and vinegar around 0.6% ± 2%. This is washed three times in 45 days and each time changing the brine solutions, so that they are properly matured and then packed in high density poly ethylene (HDPE) food grade cans or as required.

Freeze dried green pepper

India is one of the very few countries, which produces and supply freeze dried green peppercorns, wherein even the natural form of the green peppercorns is retained. This is a specialty product, which finds a wide application in instant soups and dry-meals on account of its special characteristics and subtle flavor. It is also used in the cheese industry and for preparation of pates. By virtue of its reconstitution characteristics it is a favorite choice for housewives who obtain it from the retail in glass jars for varied application at home.Most of the moisture from fresh tender green pepper is removed by freezing the berries at -30ºC to -40ºC under high vacuum. The colour, aroma and texture of freeze-dried green pepper are superior to sun dried or mechanically dehydrated green pepper. Freeze-dried green pepper has 2-4 per cent moisture and is very light.

Dehydrated salted green pepper

Dehydrated salted green pepper is a product developed by the Pepper India Corporation; it is a 100% substitute for green pepper in brine and is much more convenient as it is easier for transportation and storing as it does not involve any brine solution. It is a product, which can be used instead of pepper in brine as it contains both pepper and salt in the same proportion and at the same time maintains the natural green colour.

Canned green pepper

Green pepper after harvest is preserved in 2% brine solution and the product is heat sterilized. This product has the additional advantage over dehydrated green pepper in that it retains the natural colour, texture and flavour.

Bottled green pepper

Green pepper is preserved without spoilage in 20% brine solution containing 100 ppm SO2 and 0.2% citric acid. Addition of citric acid prevents blackening of berries.

Cured green pepper

To overcome the disadvantages of poor texture and weak flavour of dehydrated green pepper and the high unit weight and packing cost of canned and bottled green pepper, cured green pepper has been developed. Berries are thoroughly cleaned in water, steeped in saturated brine solution for 2-3 months, drained and packed in suitable flexible polyethylene pouches.

Sterilised black pepper

Sterilized black pepper is a premium quality pepper. It is more noble and aromatic than the other species of pepper. Being the spice capital of India, Kerala is considered as the custodian of these ‘Black Pearls'. Black pepper is native to Malabar and has been grown here for more than 2000 years.

Pepper berries are collected farm fresh and after removing all stones and other foreign particles, it is thoroughly washed in boiling water and dried under controlled conditions, till the moisture is brought down to less than 11%. Packaging is done using double-layered poly bags of 25 kg net weight.

Black pepper crushed

Special quality black pepper is crushed and sieved into various sizes varying from 10-30 mesh according to the choice of the buyers and packed in double lined polybags of 25 kg each.

Decorticated black pepper

This is a form of white pepper produced by mechanical decortications of the outer skin of black pepper. This is generally done when white pepper is in short supply. The appearance of decorticated kernel is inferior to traditionally prepared white pepper, but is satisfactory when ground. Also the milling operation requires considerable skill to avoid excessive volatile oil loss.

Pepper oil

Black pepper is crushed to coarse powder and steam distilled to obtain 2.5 to 3.5 per cent colourless to pale green essential oil which becomes viscous on ageing. It is used in perfumery and in flavouring. Oil can also be distilled from white pepper but high price of white pepper and low oil yield do not favour its commercial production.

Pepper oleoresin

Extraction of black pepper with organic solvents like acetone, ethanol or dichloro-ethane provides 10-13% oleoresin possessing the odour, flavour and pungent principles of the spice. The content of the pungent alkaloid piperine ranges from 4 to 6% in dry pepper and 35 to 50% in oleoresin. When freshly made, pepper oleoresin is a dark green, viscous, heavy liquid with a strong aroma. One kg of oleoresin when dispersed on an inert base can replace 15 to 20 kg of spice for flavouring purpose.

Drying percentage and flavour characteristics of Panniyur varieties (1-7) of pepper


Panniyur varieties








Drying %








Piperine %








Oleoresin %








Essential oil %








Other information

With a growing demand for unadulterated food, organic methods of cultivation are fast gaining attention. People around the world have today turned to Ayurveda and hence a demand for contamination free spices is on the increase. Organic cultivation using natural fertilizers is fast gaining momentum and is expected to reach far heights in the years to come.

With the objectives of building a greener and healthier world, Peerumedu Development Society (PDS) has always been striving to strike a total balance of the eco- system. It advocates the use of natural fertilizers, bio-control agents and recyclable biological products to attain a self-sustainable eco-system. As a part of this programme, PDS employs the use of organic manures, cultivation of legumes, intercropping, vermiculture and improved biodiversity for crop protection.